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Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. 19 F major, K 459

"2nd coronation concerto"
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Length: 28'
1. Allegro
2. Allegretto
3. Allegro assai

The Piano Concerto No. 19 in F major, KV 459 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was written at the end of 1784: Mozart's own catalogue of works records that it was completed on 11 December. It is occasionally known as the "second coronation concerto" on account of Mozart playing it on the occasion of the coronation of Leopold II in Frankfurt am Main in October 1790.

First movement

The orchestra opens quietly with a prelude of 71 bars, wherein six orchestral themes are exposed, of which the first, rhythmical and with a military ambiance, becomes increasingly important as the movement progresses; indeed, its insistent rhythm dominates the entire movement. The piano then answers with its own exposition of 116 bars, starting with A and B, then introducing some new material, with free passages of arpeggios and scales. The orchestra then returns on its own with its short first ritornello that introduces another theme.

Second movement

This gentle movement is in a condensed sonata form, with an ABAB structure. Each of the two major themes, the first major, the second minor, is broadly presented and varied; Mozart slightly varies the second presentation in B to avoid exact repetition. The movement is closed with highly characteristic use of the woodwind in quiet rising scales.

Third movement

The movement, described by Girdlestone as the concerto's strongest movement, is in a broadly rondo form. In contrast to the languid second movement, the theme is sharply defined and introduced by the piano, quickly followed by the winds. The theme establishes the main motif of this piece: quaver-quaver-crotchet, quaver-quaver-crotchet. The two quavers in each group of three notes are of identical pitch. This motif is in fact used very frequently throughout the piece, a technique similar to the motif development used by Beethoven in his Symphony No.5, First Movement. The orchestra then comes up with the second theme - a scalar passage which is then presented in a contrapuntal fashion. The piano remains silent during this time. Then the piano makes its re-entrance and starts off with runs. The orchestra provides continuous accompaniment with the main motif and different themes. At one point the opening material returns and the second theme is played again, though not in the same pitch or with the same instrumentation. The treatment is contrapuntal but somewhat looser than previously, the piano now playing along with the orchestra. A sweeping passage by piano and then by orchestra leads into the cadenza which provides a temporary break from the relentless exhilaration of the movement. After the cadenza comes the coda where the main theme is built up bit by bit to a conclusion. The piece closes with three emphatic chords played by all instruments, including piano. All in all this is one of Mozart's most miraculous movements - the balance between the extreme light-heartedness of the melodies and the formal complexity of the motifs and the counterpoint being simply astounding.Kraków. 

source: www.wikipedia.org